What is the causative organism of malaria. Malaria: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention 2022-10-22
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Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The causative organism of malaria is a type of protozoan parasite known as Plasmodium.
There are five species of Plasmodium that are known to cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. P. falciparum is the most deadly and is responsible for most malaria-related deaths worldwide. It is also the most widespread and can be found in most tropical and subtropical regions. P. vivax is the most common and is found in many parts of the world, including Central and South America, Asia, and parts of Africa. P. ovale and P. malariae are less common and are mostly found in Africa and Asia. P. knowlesi is a rare but potentially severe form of malaria that is found in Southeast Asia.
The life cycle of Plasmodium involves both human and mosquito hosts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the parasites in the mosquito's saliva enter the person's bloodstream and travel to the liver. There, they multiply and eventually enter the red blood cells, where they continue to multiply and cause the symptoms of malaria. When the infected red blood cells burst, the parasites are released and enter new red blood cells, continuing the cycle.
Symptoms of malaria can include fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to organ failure and death. Malaria can be diagnosed through a blood test and can be treated with medications, although resistance to some of these medications is a growing concern.
Prevention of malaria includes the use of mosquito nets, insect repellents, and medications that prevent the parasites from multiplying in the liver. In addition, efforts to control the mosquito population, such as the use of insecticides and the elimination of breeding sites, can help reduce the transmission of the disease.
In conclusion, the causative organism of malaria is the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause severe illness and even death if left untreated, but it can be prevented and treated with proper measures.
Prevention Can I prevent malaria? Related: 8 Awful Parasite Infections That Will Make Your Skin Crawl opens in new tab With severe malaria, the blood inside the body sludges, or piles up and sticks to blood vessel walls, so it doesn't flow normally, Ryan told Live Science. Malaria symptoms usually appear 10 days to one month after the person was infected. Overview Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodiumparasites, which are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anophelesmosquitoes. The parasite is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Sickle cell trait happens when you have one sickle cell gene and one normal gene. What are the signs and symptoms of malaria? This is the only type of mosquito that can spread malaria. There are five types of malaria parasites that can infect humans.
Name the causative agent of malaria. State any two symptoms and two preventive measures of malaria.
Protective clothing, bed nets and insecticides can protect you while traveling. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing. If visiting rural villages, sleep under insecticide-treated bed netting and spray insecticides indoors to keep mosquitoes away. Vector control Progress in global malaria control is threatened by emerging resistance to insecticides among Anophelesmosquitoes. In rare cases, people who are pregnant and who have malaria can transfer the disease to their children before or during birth. Is there a vaccine against malaria? The mosquito becomes infected by biting an infected person and drawing blood that contains the parasite.
Malaria is transmitted by the bite of an infected Anopheles female mosquito, which passes on the Plasmodium parasite to people. Signs and symptoms of malaria are similar to flu symptoms. When to see a doctor Talk to your doctor if you experience a fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. Anopheles mosquitoes thrive in areas with warm temperatures, humid conditions and high rainfall, according to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research opens in new tab in Boulder, Colorado. People who have malaria usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. Plasmodium first occupies liver cells and multiply to increase its population.
Regular monitoring of drug efficacy is needed to inform treatment policies in malaria-endemic countries, and to ensure early detection of, and response to, drug resistance. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. You will need to take the drugs before, during and after your stay. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain cerebral malaria , swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. The right medication and correct dose can treat malaria and clear the infection from your body. Do not use a spray directly on your face. Preventive medicine If you'll be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about whether you should take drugs before, during and after your trip to help protect you from malaria parasites.
Malaria may recur Some varieties of the malaria parasite, which typically cause milder forms of the disease, can persist for years and cause relapses. Continued measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission are required. Many of the medications used for malaria prevention are the same medications that are used for treatment. Visiting a Region With a High Rate of Malaria Travelers who visit regions with a high rate of malaria may become infected, particularly because travelers who have not been previously exposed to the infection have not developed immunity to the condition. The infection enters the human body through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito, which serves as a vector carrier. Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants to cover skin. By taking prophylactic medication, you can avoid the whole process of becoming sick, and you won't have to worry about complications from the infection.
Complications Malaria can be fatal, particularly when caused by the plasmodium species common in Africa. The World Health Organization estimates that about 94% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5. The vaccine has been shown to significantly reduce malaria, and deadly severe malaria, among young children. You get malaria when a mosquito infected with parasites bites you and transfers the parasite to you. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.
Both intravenous and oral medicines are available to treat malaria and remove the parasite from the blood. While it has been noted that some people living in regions with a high rate of malaria may become immune, many otherwise healthy people with normal immune systems experience serious complications and may die from the infection. The merozoites that are released when red blood cells burst can travel throughout the body, entering into other red blood cells. Case management Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease, prevents deaths and contributes to reducing transmission. It causes swelling of the brain which might lead to its permanent damage followed by seizures and coma.
Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Diagnosis and Tests How is malaria diagnosed? Researchers are continuing to develop and study malaria vaccines to prevent infection. When a mosquito bites someone who has malaria, the mosquito becomes infected. Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. A person may die of the disease because the sludging blocks blood vessels to organs, such as the lungs opens in new tab , brain or kidneys, causing damage, he said. Your provider will take a sample of your blood and send it to a lab to see if you have malaria parasites. However, in many developing countries, malaria is a leading cause of death and disease, where children under age 5 and pregnant women are the hardest hit groups.
Each year nearly 290 million people are infected with malaria, and more than 400,000 people die of the disease. Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. Diagnosis The diagnosis of malaria can be delayed because the initial symptoms are often so vague and general that flu seems more likely than a parasitic infection. Spray pyrethrin, an insecticide, on clothing. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future. Multiple pages were reviewed for this article.