What is observation in data collection. 8 Characteristics of Observation Method of Data Collection 2022-10-24
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Observation is a method of data collection that involves watching and recording the behaviors, actions, and characteristics of people, animals, or phenomena in a systematic and objective way. It is a fundamental tool used in various fields such as psychology, sociology, education, biology, and many others.
There are two main types of observation: participatory and non-participatory. Participatory observation involves the researcher actively participating in the activities of the group being studied. This type of observation allows the researcher to gain a deeper understanding of the group's culture and behaviors by immersing themselves in the environment. Non-participatory observation, on the other hand, involves the researcher observing from a distance and not actively participating in the activities of the group. This type of observation is useful for studying the behavior of individuals or groups in a more natural and uncontrolled setting.
Observation has several advantages as a data collection method. It allows the researcher to collect rich, detailed data about the behaviors and characteristics of the study participants. It also allows the researcher to observe the study participants in their natural environment, which can provide valuable insights into their behaviors and motivations.
However, observation also has some limitations. It can be time-consuming and requires the researcher to have strong observational skills and attention to detail. It can also be influenced by the researcher's personal biases, which can affect the reliability and validity of the data collected.
In conclusion, observation is a valuable method of data collection that allows researchers to observe and record the behaviors and characteristics of individuals or groups in a systematic and objective way. It is widely used in various fields and provides rich, detailed data, but it also has some limitations that must be considered when using it as a research method.
What is observation in data gathering?
First, the data only represent one or two cases. The researcher is not bound by any rigid position. Second, the various types of observations research methods are explained. His role as an observer may be concealed or revealed. A researcher is studying the relationship between time spent studying in med school and depression rates among students.
5 ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION AS A DATA COLLECTION TOOL IN RESEARCH
In a covert study, on the other hand, subjects are unaware that they are being observed. Issues involving informed consent and invasion of privacy are paramount here. The technique qualifies as a scientific method of data collection when it is specially designed to answer a research question and is systematically planned and executed with proper controls. Why observation is the best method? Often we are more likely to recall cases relying on anecdotal evidence based on their striking characteristics. A doctor watching a patient after administering an injection. Characteristics of observation as a data collection tool : It is necessary to make a distinction between observation as a scientific tool and the casual observation of the man in the street. In addition, questions such as when, how often, and where should you observe are often a concern.
Anthropologists and students dug through household garbage to find out about such things as food preferences, waste behavior, and alcohol consumption. What makes an observation method a scientific method? Researchers make long-term commitments to becoming active members of the group and attempt to establish close relationships with its members, who subsequently served as both informants and respondents. Observation as a data collection method can be structured or unstructured. It is the chief method of ethnographers who specialize in community studies. Difficult to replicate — cannot control extraneous variables. Namely, observations are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis remember a hypothesis is a statement about what you expect to observe.
What are the types of different observation methods of data collection?
It should be clearly defined before the beginning of the actual observation process. It is a more natural way of gathering data. Hence an observer's experience in such a situation becomes necessary. How is personal observation used in ethnography? Naturalistic observation Naturalistic observation is a research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists. The disadvantage of participant observation is that it is time-consuming as a researcher has to develop relationships with members of the group and there is a chance that the researcher will lose his neutrality, objectivity, and accuracy to rate things as they are.
The personal observation not only records what, has been specified but also identifies and records unexpected behaviors that defy pre-established response categories. An Interesting Side Note: The protection of human rights from unethical research practices was heightened as a consequence of the Nazi regime in Germany. Observational research findings are considered strong in validity because the researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior. Should you or shouldn't you collect your data through observation? Observers should be aware of this reaction. It does not rely on what people say they do, or what they say they think. Personal observation is a subset category, in which the researcher is the primary instrument for monitoring and data collection, and is widely used with ethnography.
What is observation as a method of data collection?
You see something and write it down. The practice of social research. For example, you may observe a girl banging on her keyboard. What is observation method with example? In disguised observation, the subjects are unaware of the facts that they are being observed. Known as descriptive research, observations are a great way to start a research project. Non-verbal behavior Observation is decidedly superior to survey research, experimentation, or document study for collecting data on nonverbal behavior. Prolonged and personal interaction with the research subjects is the prime advantage of participant observation.
What is the Observation Method of Primary Data Collecting?
Watching classmates struggle with test-anxiety is a lot different than joining Alcoholics Anonymous. The non behavioral observation is an analysis of records e. What are observations and how do they work? The researcher should specify the variables of interest which, are to be observed along with other variables which influence the study, For each variable identified, its definition and the measurement terms to be used to record the results should be specified. The characteristics that are to be observed need to be specified. The advantage of this method is that the true results are obtained, but it is expensive and time consuming method.
8 Characteristics of Observation Method of Data Collection
Observation offers the researcher a distinct way of collecting data. The Hawthorne Effect states that workers react to the attention they are getting from the researchers and in turn, productivity increases. A case-control study compares a group that has a certain characteristic to a group that does not, often a retrospective study for rare conditions. Observation can be classified into various, categories. The Nuremberg Code has since influenced policies of ethical research practices in several countries. In structured or systematic observation, data collection is conducted using specific variables and according to a pre-defined schedule.