Third stage of demographic transition. Demographic Transition Model 2022-10-24
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The third stage of demographic transition is a period of population aging and declining fertility rates, characterized by low birth rates and increasing life expectancy. This stage is characterized by a number of social, economic, and demographic changes that have significant implications for societies around the world.
During the third stage of demographic transition, birth rates tend to decline to levels below the replacement rate, which is the rate at which a population can sustain itself without declining. This decline in fertility is often accompanied by a decline in mortality rates, resulting in an aging population with a higher proportion of elderly individuals.
One of the main drivers of the third stage of demographic transition is increased access to education, particularly for women. As education levels rise, women are more likely to pursue careers and delay childbirth until later in life. This can lead to lower fertility rates and a shift in the age structure of the population.
Another factor contributing to the third stage of demographic transition is the increased availability of birth control, which allows individuals and couples to more easily plan and regulate their fertility. This can lead to smaller family sizes, as people choose to have fewer children or to have children later in life.
The third stage of demographic transition has a number of social and economic implications. An aging population can put pressure on social security and pension systems, as the number of elderly individuals who rely on these systems increases. It can also lead to a decline in the size of the workforce, which can have negative impacts on economic growth and productivity.
On the other hand, the third stage of demographic transition can also bring about positive changes. For example, an aging population may lead to increased investments in healthcare and social services, which can improve the quality of life for elderly individuals. In addition, declining fertility rates may lead to increased gender equality, as women have more opportunities to pursue education and careers.
Overall, the third stage of demographic transition is a complex and multifaceted process that has significant impacts on societies around the world. While it brings about challenges, it also offers opportunities for positive social and economic change.
What is the Demographic Transition Model?
Industrial Stage The third stage of the demographic transition is the industrial stage, which is characterized by an increasing population with declining birth rates and low death rates. As the gap is closed between death rates and birth rates, the human population will stop increasing and remain at a stable level. But there is no substantial change in the men, attitude of the people and hence birth rate stays high i. Over time, as individuals with increased survival rates age, there may also be an increase in the number of older children, teenagers, and young adults. Stage III is characterised by a falling birth rate, low and stationary death rate and rapidly rising population. Limitations of the Demographic Transition Model Like any model, there will be outliers and exceptions to the rule and the Demographic Transition Model is no different. But now both concepts are equally decreasing.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The first stage of demographic transition is characterized by high birth rates and high death rates. The life-expectancy of the people goes up. Although birth rates are declining, the population increases due to low death rates and the momentum of social and technical advances from the previous stage. Lastly: Family planning facilities develop fast which enable the people to practise birth control so as to achieve advantage of small families.
What is Stage 3 of the demographic transition model?
Countries making the transition to Stage 3 all have some relative stability — economic, social or political. The mortality rate is highest among the poor. So, in the fourth stage of demographic transition, fertility rate and mortality rate change markedly. Over the past 300 years, population demographics have continued to evolve as a result of the relationship between the birth and death rates within a country. The demographic "crisis" in Africa, ascribed by critics of the demographic transition theory to the colonial era, stemmed in Madagascar from the policies of the imperial Merina regime, which in this sense formed a link to the French regime of the colonial era. The death rates are high because there is increased disease, minimal medical care, poor sanitation, and limited food supplies.
This will further increase the growth of the child population. Many countries remain in Stage 3 even with fast growing economies and ever changing social dynamics. France's demographic profile is similar to its European neighbors and to developed countries in general, yet it seems to be staving off the population decline of Western countries. What are the 4 stages of demographic transition? The demographic transition model was initially proposed in 1929 by demographer Warren Thompson. More than two-thirds of that growth can be ascribed to a natural increase resulting from high fertility and birth rates. These production units require the development of some market in which textile farmers produced high volumes of flax or cotton needed to trade these products for food and other necessary items, resulting in the development of large livestock ranches where cows or sheep are raised. When the death rate falls or improves, this may include lower infant mortality rate and increased child survival.
Diane Chido Diane Chido has taught graduate and undergraduate Intelligence Studies and Political Science for nearly ten years. The four stages of demographic transition mentioned by Max are explained as follows: First Stage: This stage has been called high population growth potential stage. Therefore, population growth rate registers new high with sudden increase of population. Regardless, stable population growth provides significant advantages for a country, offering opportunities to strengthen its economy as a prominent number of its citizens will be in their working years. People mostly live in rural areas and their main occupation is agriculture which is in the stage of backwardness. Birth rate declines due to the impact of economic development, changed social attitudes and increased facilities for family planning. It results in low population growth.
With new technologies in agriculture and production, and advancements in health and sanitation, a greater number of people lived through their adolescent years, increasing the average life expectancy and creating a new trajectory for population growth. Death rate is generally high and it becomes exceptionally high during the period of famines and epidemics. At stage 1 the birth and death rates are both high. The classical example of third stage demographic transition is Western Europe. It becomes more or less stationary at a low level. They have a MS in Applied Analysis from Mercyhurst University, an MA in Russian Language from University of Pittsburgh, and a BA in International Relations from American University.
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The racial cross-over is projected to occur in 2043. In this stage, though both the birth rate and death rate are high, they are highly unpredictable. The continued second stage results in further decline of the mortality rate. In Cronk, L; Chagnon, NA; Irons, W eds. Human behavior and adaptation: An anthropological perspective. It was observed that in countries with high standards of living, the population grew at a slow rate, while in countries with low standards of living, the population grew more rapidly.
Both more-fertile and less-fertile futures have been claimed as a Stage Five. Due to improvement of economy, increase of per capita income and massive growth of urbanization, development of urban-industrial society occurs. What countries are still in Stage 3? Agriculture and industries start developing which leads to the development of the tertiary sector also. What country is in Stage 2 of the demographic transition? By Drew Grover October 13, 2014 This is post 1 of 6 in a series about the Demographic Transition Model — a fundamental concept in population education, which is covered in Social Studies courses, most notably AP Human Geography. As the country becomes highly developed there is no further possibility of fall in birth rate and death rate. However, this late decline occurred from a very low initial level. Second Stage: It is called the stage of Population Explosion.
This decrease in fertility rate is observed as the result of societal ideals evolving around contraception and the status of women. The changing demographics of the U. Campbell argues that in 19th-century Madagascar the human factor, in the form of the From 1820, the cost of such expansionism led the state to increase its exploitation of forced labor at the expense of agricultural production and thus transformed it into a negative demographic force. This example of uneven distribution would be a topic of demography, which is the study of the size, density, and distribution of the human population. The World War II economy brought enormous technological advances.
The varieties of food and opportunities to meet with distant neighbors outside the extended family offered the potential to find marriage partners, thus increasing the gene pool. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects are taken into consideration. The four stages of the classical demographic transition model are pretransition, early transition, late transition and post-transition. STAGE 2: HIGH GROWTH RATE Around the mid-1700s, global populations began to grow ten times faster than in the past for two reasons: The Industrial Revolution and increased wealth. The final stage is the post-industrial stage, which is when the human population stabilizes, due to low birth rates and low death rates. Motivations have changed from traditional and economic ones to those of self-realization. During this stage, the human population begins to increase due to high birth rates and declining death rates.