The biological perspective in health and social care is a way of understanding the human body and its functions, as well as the causes and treatments of diseases and disorders. It focuses on the physiological and biochemical processes that occur within the body and how they are influenced by genetics, evolution, and the environment.
One of the main pillars of the biological perspective is the idea that health and disease are determined by a complex interplay of biological, genetic, and environmental factors. This perspective suggests that an individual's risk for developing a particular disease or disorder is influenced by their genetic makeup, as well as their lifestyle and environmental exposures.
For example, research has shown that certain genetic variations can increase an individual's risk for developing conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Similarly, environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, and exposure to toxins can also contribute to the development of these and other health problems.
The biological perspective also emphasizes the role of the body's systems and their interactions in maintaining health and combating disease. For example, the immune system plays a crucial role in protecting the body from infection and illness, while the endocrine system helps regulate metabolism and hormone production.
In the field of health and social care, the biological perspective is used to inform the development of treatments and interventions for a wide range of conditions. This includes the use of medications and other therapies to address specific biological processes or systems that are not functioning properly.
For example, antidepressants may be used to regulate levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, while insulin injections may be used to treat diabetes by regulating blood sugar levels. Other examples of treatments that are informed by the biological perspective include chemotherapy for cancer, antiretroviral therapy for HIV, and hormone replacement therapy for menopause.
Overall, the biological perspective is an important tool for understanding and addressing the complex factors that influence health and disease. By considering the physiological and biochemical processes that occur within the body and how they are influenced by genetics and the environment, health and social care professionals can develop more effective and targeted treatments and interventions for a wide range of conditions.
Talcott Parsons was a sociologist who is best known for his contributions to the study of the family. His work focused on the role of the family in society and how it serves to fulfill certain functions that are necessary for the maintenance of social order.
Parsons argued that the family is an essential social institution that serves several important functions in society. One of these functions is the socialization of children. The family is responsible for teaching children the values, norms, and behaviors that are necessary for them to function as members of society. This process of socialization begins at a young age and continues throughout a person's life.
Another important function of the family is the provision of emotional support and companionship. Families provide a sense of belonging and security, and they offer a source of love and affection that is essential for the emotional well-being of their members.
Parsons also argued that the family plays a key role in the economic organization of society. In many societies, the family is responsible for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The family is also responsible for the economic support of its members, particularly children and elderly family members who may not be able to support themselves.
Parsons' theory of the family was influential in the mid-20th century, but it has since been critiqued for its narrow focus on the nuclear family and its lack of attention to diversity and change. Despite these criticisms, Parsons' work remains an important contribution to the study of the family and its role in society.
Talcott Parsons Biography
Only in as much as such a consensus on a grading scale is achieved will the system of stratification be accepted as legitimate. The pre-industrial society illustrates families satisfying the numerous requirements of their relatives. Smelser, 1956 and has prevailed in all his work ever since. Parsons' solution centered around the role of moral values in social action—he proposed that, through socialization, such values become internalized and incorporated into the actor's personality, where they guide both the selection of ends of action and the normative means by which they are sought. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1983.
Murdock and Talcott Parsons. Parsons contributed the first English-language monograph devoted to Weber's work as a whole, volume 2 of The Structure of Social Action Parsons 1937 and also published a translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in 1930, and part of Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in 1948. While some identified several functions, Parsons suggests that there are two irreducible functions: 1 primary socialisation and 2 the stabilisation of adult personalities. All these have today influenced the teachings and interpretations to the next learners. Perhaps we can draw an example from the football field to illustrate this point. Tokyo: Japan Economic Research Institute, 1973.
Read more Navigate Down Luhmann, Niklas 1927—98 R. Parsons saw education to be the place where children and young adults get the chance to gain qualifications for their specific roles in wider society. He remained a professor at Harvard until he retired in 1973. Law in Modern Society 1976. Gender roles are taught to the daughter by the mother who shows an expressive role suited to the emotional and caring aspect of the family. Over the last 200 years, society has moved from pre-industrial to industrial — and the main family type has changed from the extended family to the nuclear family. These writers, however, unlike Weber, have generally organized their material according to a theme, pattern or formula—dictatorship or democracy, Kings or people, the Absolutist State, the priority of external over internal pressures in revolutionary situations.
Below are the four principles as elucidated by Talcott Parsons. In the case of the analysis of a social action system, the AGIL paradigm, according to Parsons, yields four interrelated and interpenetrating subsystems: the behavioral systems of its members A , the personality systems of those members G , the social system as such I , and the cultural system of that society L. Weberian social thought in North America, which has ignored the tragic element in Weber, may be seen with caution as a partial reciprocation, an acknowledgment of how Weber's own thought might have appeared in North American conditions, freed of the specifically European burdens which Weber took it upon himself to bear. Reischauer, and John K. Several decades later, then, it is clear that, although there is evidence of gender differences in instrumental and expressive behaviors in groups, gender similarities are perhaps as striking.
The phenomenological enterprise directed Garfinkel's attention to certain fundamental pretheoretical problems posed by Parsons' theory of action, problems which were not adequately addressed within the Parsonian framework. Loss of family functions G. Different institutions perform specific functions within a society to keep society going, in the same way as the different organs of a human body perform different functions in order to maintain the whole. Religion, communication by language, social organization through kinship, and technology are the first conditions of building human societies. For further discussion, see Uta Gerhardt, "Talcott Parsons und die Re-Education-Politik der amerikanischen Besatzungsmacht. Below is a brief explanation of all the three actions involved in the social action theory. Various processes of "interchange" among the subsystems of the social system were postulated.
Talcott Parsons stated that the nuclear family was the ideal family structure Research paper for students
I think we can go beyond that and say that there must be a community of knowers who are able to communicate with each other. The theory was developed by the American sociologists such as Talcott Parsons in the twentieth century, and it became the dominant theoretical perspective in sociology Compare and Contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views on the Family Compare and Contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views on the Family Functionalists argue that societies consist of inter-related social institutions such as schools, mass media, political systems, the Church and the family each of which contribute positively to the maintenance of stability of society as a whole. The Social System was translated into Japanese by Tsutomu Sato in 1974. Criticism of Parsons and the Emergence of Neo-Functionalism Parsons' theory was widely rejected in the 1960s and 1970s. Another major criticism of Parsons' model states that going to see the doctor is not the only component in the complex system of help-seeking behavior, so a distinction should be made between the sick role and the patient role. Parsons' strong reaction to behavioristic theory as well as to sheer materialistic approaches derives from the attempt of the theoretical positions to eliminate ends, purpose, and ideals as factors of analysis. These sub-systems work not only in and of themselves, but also for the other sub-systems to be able to function properly.
Talcott Parsons Functionalist Perspective On The Family
After the Second World War, the nuclear …show more content… Due to primary socialisation, the children in the family would then be socialised into their gender roles so then when their time comes to marry and have children, this family structure will continue: the male has the instrumental role and the woman has the expressive role. He was elected as the president of the American Sociological Association in 1949. Yet against this charge, it may be recalled that Weber himself was an admirer of both the political and cultural achievements of three Protestant cultures outside Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. At the same time, he wished to avoid the limitations and pitfalls of strictly utilitarian thinking, which cannot account for the ends toward which action is oriented, and which treats intrinsic rationality as the sole standard governing the selection of means. Examples of such an approach are the combination of literature and anthropology in Rene Girard's account of violence; of sociology and economics in Talcott Parsons' account of the nature of action; and of sociology and history in Barrington Moore and Skocpol's accounts of democracy and revolution. Many of the wealthiest individuals in the world have little educational and professional qualifications. It may have held some truth in the 1950s but today, with the majority of women in paid work, and the blurring of gender roles, it seems that both partners are more likely to take on both expressive and instrumental roles Ignoring the exploitation of women Functionalists tend to ignore the way women suffer from the sexual division of labour in the family.
Classic Texts: Talcott Parsons "The Social Structure of the Family" 1959
University of Toronto Press, 1985. The nuclear family fits the more complex industrial society better, but it performs a reduced number of functions. Among his many critical points, Parsons stressed especially that Bell's discussion of technology tended to "separate off culture" and treat the two categories "as what I would call culture minus the cognitive component". He is unarguably one of the most influential sociologists of the twentieth century. The validity of other family structures, or the diversity of the family is not considered. Further differentiation results from the application of the scheme to one of the subsystems. His work features in many topic areas in sociology.
This is how primary socialization contributes to the stabilization of society. Religion, thus, is a necessary element for social order. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964. The Marxist-Feminist perspective; however, viewed qualities for men and women as to being dependent on social conditions rather Functionalism In Health And Social Care In sociology, functionalism is one of the main theoretical perspective. Cultural systems have an independent status from that of the normative and orientational pattern of the social system; neither system can be reduced to the other. He is the father of structuralist-functionalism, and he is credited for introducing European sociology to the US by translating important texts of European scholars. Talcott Parsons Today: His Theory and Legacy in Contemporary Sociology.
At the same time, typologies will never succeed in replacing analyses, and will always remain intellectually unsatisfactory. Edited by Uta Gerhardt. Talcott Parsons 1902-1979 is often considered the major contributor and practitioner of structural functionalism. Also, The Structure of Social Action was translated into Japanese. Explorations in General Theory in Social Science. Families help individuals keep stable, so society too, can remain stable. Parsons's theory then evolved into functional systems analysis.