School of management thought. [PDF Notes] Schools of Management Thought 2023 2022-10-25
School of management thought
Schools of management thought are frameworks that provide a broad perspective on how organizations operate and how they can be managed effectively. These frameworks are based on the research and theories of management practitioners and academics, and they offer different approaches to managing organizations, including the roles and responsibilities of managers, the decision-making processes, and the overall goals of the organization.
One of the earliest schools of management thought is the classical school, which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The classical school focused on increasing efficiency and productivity through the use of scientific methods and processes. This approach emphasized the importance of clear hierarchies and strict rules and procedures for managing organizations.
Another important school of management thought is the human relations school, which emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. This approach emphasizes the importance of considering the needs and motivations of individual employees in the management process. It suggests that managers should focus on creating a positive work environment and building strong relationships with employees in order to increase productivity and job satisfaction.
The contingency school of management thought, which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, takes a different approach by recognizing that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to managing organizations. This approach suggests that the most effective management strategies depend on the specific circumstances of the organization, including its size, structure, and industry.
More recent schools of management thought include the systems approach and the decision-making approach. The systems approach focuses on the interconnectedness of different parts of an organization and how they work together to achieve the overall goals of the organization. The decision-making approach emphasizes the importance of effective decision-making processes in managing organizations.
In conclusion, schools of management thought provide a broad perspective on how organizations operate and can be managed effectively. These frameworks are based on the research and theories of management practitioners and academics and offer different approaches to managing organizations, including the roles and responsibilities of managers, the decision-making processes, and the overall goals of the organization.
Classification of Management Theories: 4 Schools of Thought
Until formal management theories developed, pre-scientific management theories contributed to the management thought. If all of the bullet points have been addressed, then you may begin to reuse the bullet points with the expectation that varied responses continue. Financial incentives are not always as rewarding as non-financial incentives in affecting the human behaviour. It includes management theories that provide foundation to the study of management. Management is the study of functions of managers. The Social System School, 4. Recordkeeping provides organizational memory and continuity over time.
Schools Of Management Thoughts Or Theories
They can at best be treated as tools and techniques for purposes of analysis. Henry Gantt 1861-1919 : He was a consulting engineer who specialized in control system for shop scheduling. Organising: To coordinate human and non-human resources of the organisation to put the plans into action. Contemporary School: The contemporary school of management thoughts outlines the framework for studying the more recent trends in management practices, such as the impact of global business, Theory Z concepts, McKinsey 7-S approach, the search for excellence, and the concern for quality and productivity. It may be viewed as an assemblage or a combination of things or parts forming a complex whole. Contingency Approach School of Management: According to this approach, management is a subject that is situational by nature. It enables the manager to determine what inputs human, physical or financial resources will be necessary to ensure the desired output.
Schools of Management thought
Given the help of computers and various mathematical techniques, the model building approach is being used to produce simulations of actual systems. Its basic theme is that if application of a particular policy or strategy by a manager had successfully tackled a business problem or opportunity, then a similar problem or situation facing any manager could also be tackled by applying the same policy or strategy. The School focuses on proper planning and decision-making. Managers can use computer models to figure out the best way to do something as saving both money and time. Beginning with an examination of the functions performed by the executives, the process of management has been studied by the scholars drawn from a number of disciplines. Further, there is no one-to-one cause and effect relationship between inputs, processes and outputs in an open system, because of the operation of a multitude of intervening variables which prevent the system from responding in simplistic and predictable manner.
Evolution of Management Thought
A closed system is one which does not adapt to its environment. Advocates of this school look upon management as a social system, that is, a system of cultural interrelationships. Image will be Uploaded soon What Does Management Thought Means? In a trading concern, for example, there is little investment on plant and equipment and therefore an inherent flexibility to change its technology in response to new consumer demands. Scientific management is the forerunner in the study of management. Mathematical models can be developed by quantifying various variables of the problems.
Major Schools of Management Thought
Operational research, mathematical tools, simulation and model building are the basic methodologies developed by this school of thought. Physical and mechanical systems are close systems. Human Relations Theory b. Forecasting is the process by which future predictions are formulated through mathematical computations. It exists for some objective. We have already seen how the social study approach also makes use of the Systems Study of management. Provide detailed justification for your choice.
(PDF) Schools of Management Thought SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Structure
The Systems Approach School 8. If the environment is favourable with the output, activity continues; if it is not, changes are initiated until the desirable relationship is restored. The system proceeds in a rational manner and is not haphazard in its functioning, unless it has been damaged or impaired in some way. Systems approach to management is a new approach. This approach recognizes that there is a central core of knowledge about managing which exists in management such as line and staff, patterns of departmentation, span of management, managerial appraisal and various managerial control techniques. The main contributors and thinkers belonging to this school are Chester Barnard, James March, Herbert Simon, Forrester and Richard Cyert.
The School Of Management Thought
Behavioural School: The school of behavioural management theory involved in recognition on the importance of human behaviour in organization. Policies and procedures should be according to environmental conditions. This school leans heavily on most social sciences including psychology, sociology, social psychology and anthropology. The various approaches to the study of management as propounded by specialists from different disciplines have come to be called the schools of management thought. Contingency School of Management 3.
Schools of Management Thought
Koontz is of the view that the management-process-approach has certain advantages for students, researchers and practitioners, such as — i It helps to present effectively knowledge about management. Hawthorne Experiments and investigated the myriad of informal groupings, informal relationships, social clique patterns of communication and patterns of informal leadership. Contributors: Sociologists like Blake, Selznick, Durkheim, Pareto, Dalton and many others have also contributed to sociological aspect of the behavioural theory. These inter-dependent parts constitute an indissoluble whole. Finally, it will identify and discuss the theorist who best supports this Strategic Management : Strategic Planning and Wheelen 2011 noted that strategic management has been defined as the set of managerial decisions and actions for determining the long run future of the organization. Study of management according to this approach, lies in identifying the important variables in the situation.