Robert Gagne was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the field of instructional design. He is best known for his work on the nine events of instruction, a framework for designing and delivering effective educational experiences.
Gagne was born in 1913 in Lowell, Massachusetts and received his bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Massachusetts in 1935. He went on to earn a master's degree in psychology from Boston College in 1938 and a Ph.D. in psychology from Clark University in 1942.
Gagne began his career as a high school teacher before becoming a professor of education at the University of Minnesota in 1948. It was during this time that he developed his theory of the nine events of instruction. This theory outlines the steps that should be taken in order to effectively teach a new concept or skill to a student.
The nine events of instruction are as follows:
Gain attention: This step involves capturing the student's attention and interest in the subject matter.
Inform learners of the objectives: This step involves clearly communicating the learning objectives to the student.
Stimulate recall of prior learning: This step involves activating the student's prior knowledge of the subject matter in order to facilitate learning.
Present the stimulus material: This step involves introducing the new material that the student will be learning.
Provide learning guidance: This step involves providing the student with the necessary support and guidance to facilitate learning.
Elicit performance: This step involves having the student demonstrate their understanding of the material through activities or exercises.
Provide feedback: This step involves providing the student with feedback on their performance in order to help them improve.
Assess performance: This step involves evaluating the student's understanding of the material through assessments or exams.
Enhance retention and transfer: This step involves helping the student retain and apply the knowledge and skills learned in other situations.
Gagne's work on the nine events of instruction has had a significant influence on the field of instructional design and has been widely adopted in education and training programs around the world. He has also made significant contributions to the fields of psychology and education through his research on learning and motivation.
Gagne passed away in 2002, but his work continues to be highly respected and influential in the field of education.
Robert Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory
Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Some designers will provide rough draft outlines to graphic or multimedia designers for development. Instructors can provide detailed rubrics or give clear instruction on expectations for the learning context and the timeline for completion. This should be an iterative process, gathering feedback and making improvements. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. There are a few strategies for learning as well as for thinking, which are also called metacognitive strategies. Retrieved on: January 13, 2019 from Psychology and Mind: psicologiaymente.
Asking questions in the beginning creates an interactive atmosphere. Requiring the learner to produce based on what has been taught enables the learner to confirm their learning. This American psychologist worked in many fields. His early studies of psychology with people rather than animals were interrupted by World War II. Teacher shows students how to use Kidspiration tools to type in text, add links, add symbols, use sounds, etc. Organize and group content in meaningful ways, and provide explanations after demonstrations.
In 1949, this psychologist accepted an offer to join an organization within the Air Forces that would later become the Research Center for the Training of Air Force Personnel. Secondary education mostly starts from grade 7 to 11 and includes A-level Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Exams CAPE. This skill requires the ability to explain more than the textbook definition of a concept. Event five: Provide learner guidance. Additionally, evaluation occurs throughout the other phases to inform the design of the instruction. The five categories of outcomes provide the framework for how learning conditions can be applied to each classification Muthmainnah et al.
Verbal Information Skill Verbal information skill provides the ability to state or to recall information facts, definitions, labels, etc. Secondly, the instructor should inform students of the objectives and expected outcomes of the material Halili et al. The following instruction asks pupils to recall what they were taught previously by naturally relating it with the current subject matter. For an instructional designer, they provide a framework or outline to structure the delivery of instructional content. These events build naturally upon each other and improve the communication supporting the learning process.
This fully online program is designed for individuals interested in learning more about the ADDIE model. However, it is also important to gather information on their attitudes toward learning, their motivation for learning, education backgrounds, ability levels, and personal characteristics such as age or experience with technology. The following instructional event is eliciting performance, which requires that a student demonstrates the newly acquired learning outcome depending on whether it is an intellectual skill, verbal information, or cognitive strategy. Next we will see what each of them consists of. After the war, Lt.
Retrieved on: January 13, 2019 from Association for Psychological Science: psychologicalscience. This should be an iterative process, gathering feedback and making improvements. International Journal of Management, 11 5 , 31—42. The first one is gaining the attention of the learners so that they are ready to receive stimuli. Asks learners questions about diagramming.
The data can be grouped as generalizations, principles, facts, or names. In fact, he had to publish several reissues throughout his life. Teacher facilitates the learning process by giving hints and cues when needed. His success was resounding within educational psychology circles, and he gained considerable fame in this field. Associate course concepts with prior and future concepts and build upon prior and preview future learning to reinforce connections.
Robert Gagné and the Systematic Design of Instruction
Informing the learner of the objective The learning objective is typically shared with students early on in the lesson. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers. Contrarily, intellectual skills are concerned with environmental aspects as they deal with external symbols, words, and numbers. Briggs on Principles of Learning. Gagne proposes that the proof of learning is expressed through a performance difference before and after engaging in the activity. As your study continues, you can better see how the knowledge base of the field began, how it progressed, and how it was researched and when, which will help you gain a better understanding of the process and practice of instructional design as well as the field as a whole. The subsequent event is presenting learners with a stimulus, which might be providing them with the definition of an equilateral triangle.